Chimpanzees

Pan troglodytes

The chimpanzee along with the bonobo are humans closest living relative and share around 98 % of our genes. Chimpanzees exhibit very little morphological differences between subspecies although there are differences between males and females. Chimpanzees have longer arms than legs and opposable thumbs and big toes. Chimpanzees are all black but are born with pale faces and a white tail tuft, both of which darken with age. Visual and vocal communication is very important in chimp societies and a wide range of facial expressions, gestures, sounds and postures have been seen during interactions. Chimpanzees live both on the ground and in trees and all chimpanzees build sleeping nests in trees at night. Their usual gait is knuckle walking on all fours although occasionally they stand upright and walk upright like humans.

Family: Hominidae
Genus: Pan
Species: troglodytes
Subspecies: P. t. schweinfurthii, P. t. troglodytes, P. t. vellerosus & P. t. verus
Weight: 34-70kg(M), 26-50kg(F)
Height: 63.5 – 94 cm
Lifespan: 40 to 45 years (wild), up to 60 (captive)
IUCN: EN
CITES: Appendix I

Current distribution & popn estimates

Chimpanzee RangeChimpanzees are found across a west-east belt near the equator in central Africa. Their range spans 22 countries: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. This represents a total area of about 2.5 million km² though the majority (about 77%) of the total estimated population can be found in only two countries, Gabon and the DRC.

See the current distribution of chimpanzees

At the turn of the century there were between one and two million chimpanzees living in 25 African countries. Today estimates suggest only between 100,000 and 200,000 remain in the wild – and the numbers are still falling.

Populations in captivity: There are about 1450 chimpanzees in captivity around the world

Habitat

Chimpanzees have adapted to a wide variety of Africa habitats across their distribution including dry savannas, evergreen rainforests, montane forests, swamp forests, and dry woodland- savanna mosaics

Diet

The chimpanzee diet consists mainly of fruit, leaves and buds supplemented by seeds, blossoms, stems, pith, bark and resin. Chimpanzees will preferentially eat fruit over most other food types; however often supplement their diet with invertebrates, birds, eggs, honey, and occasionally mammals. Chimpanzees have been seen to actively hunt for protein and red colobus monkeys, blue duikers, bushbucks, red-tailed monkeys, yellow baboons, and warthogs are common prey. A day in the life of a chimpanzee consists of on average half the day feeding, and the rest of the time foraging and moving from one food source to another. Chimpanzees have been noted to modify natural resources to obtain food sources and sticks, rocks, grass and leaves are all commonly used as tools to acquire honey, termites, ants, buts and water.

Family & friends

In the wild chimpanzees live in multi-male multi-female “fission-fusion” communities with a highly complex social structure. Groups are made up of smaller bands or parties lasting anything from minutes to days, with the whole group seldom seen together. Groups can consist of anything from 15 to 100 individuals. Chimpanzee societies are completely hierarchical and male dominated and males stay in the groups they were born in for life. Chimpanzees reach sexual maturity around 10 years of age with inter-birth intervals of approximately 5 years.

Threats

Habitat loss

Industrial expansion, intensification of agriculture, legal and illegal logging, ever-increasing human population encroachment, the need for fuel (firewood and coal) and overgrazing have all contributed to major habitat loss for countless species in the tropics. For chimpanzees logging has created direct (loss of habitat) and indirect effects (climate change, soil erosion, loss of biodiversity etc) that increase their vulnerability to extinction. New roads cleared for logging also create access points to areas previously not accessible to hunters and developers.

Invasive species

Due to our genetic similarities, chimpanzees are highly susceptible to any disease humans can acquire. Increasingly diseases such as ebola, influenza, polio, tuberculosis and various parasitic diseases have caused significant mortality in chimpanzees. This is all intensified as human populations, tourists and even well-meaning researchers encroach on ape habitat.

Bushmeat

Increasing human populations result in a greater demand for cheap and fresh protein sources. As many areas in the tropics are unsuitable for livestock rearing and farming, bushmeat provides a seemingly easy alternative protein source. This trade has however reached unsustainable levels and many species are being pushed closer to extinction in order to satisfy the protein demands of humans. Although chimpanzees are a protected species, hundreds of these great apes are still landing up in meat markets, an occurrence that has increased with escalating access to guns and previously inaccessible forests. Great apes are often selectively targeted for bushmeat owing to their big size and once adults have been killed, orphan infants can secure further income by being traded as pets.

Learn more about the bushmeat trade

Intrinsic factors

As chimpanzees have long birth intervals, high juvenile death rates and skewed sex- mortality rates, vulnerable populations may not recover from even small persecution events. Inbreeding resulting from habitat fragmentation can also significantly reduce population recovery.

Persecution & Accidental mortality

As human and chimpanzee habitats are increasingly becoming closer due to expansion, human-chimp conflicts are on the rise and many chimpanzees are killed when crop raiding or of they present a specific risk to humans (e.g. killing children). As bushmeat hunting is rife in many tropical habitats, chimps are often accidentally caught in snares and even if the snare does not kill them, infections from the injury sustained can be strong enough to kill them.

Other causes

Political instability and civil unrest can affect chimpanzee populations. Refugees fleeing persecution often take refuge in forests where they rely on bushmeat to survive. Chimpanzees infants are also selectively caught for the illegal pet trade and entertainment purposes.

The Role of Sanctuaries

The growing need for sanctuaries is directly related to the steady increase in illegal hunting which results in orphaned chimpanzees.

Pan African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA)

PASA sanctuaries were created over the last three decades to accommodate the staggering numbers of orphaned and unwanted chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos and other endangered primates in Africa.

Rehabilitation projects for release back into the wild are problematic and have had limited success. At present specially built sanctuaries remain the main alternative.

The Pan African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA) was created five years ago to unite the African sanctuaries that had emerged as a response to the deforestation, bushmeat, human encroachment and disease that was decimating wild primate populations. Some of the sanctuaries are now far beyond capacity with no let-up in sight – the number of chimpanzees at PASA sanctuaries increased by 59 percent in the five years from 2000

How GAFI Can Help chimpanzees

Through the use of film, GAFI can reach the remote communities living adjacent to chimpanzee habitat to give them an insight into how great apes behave and solicit information about the peoples’ hopes and concerns for their environment. GAFI has the materials and the expertise to further enhance the conservation education programmes run by the sanctuaries caring for displaced chimpanzees. By providing the sanctuaries with films and the necessary equipment, visitors will not only leave with an impression of captive chimpanzees but also with an impression of how great apes live in the wild and the important role they play in the ecosystem. When funds become available, GAFI hopes to train sanctuary staff in how to make their own films about issues of relevance to their particular sanctuary and the surrounding communities and generate new films focusing on chimpanzees an the threats they face.

GAFI films can help raise the plight of the chimpanzees both at a local and national level. Using is species as a flagship, GAFI hopes that increases awareness will create new opportunities for the creation of protected areas throughout their range which would not only greatly increase the survival of the species, but convey wider benefits for overall biodiversity in the region.

Who else is helping

References